PCB Fabrication Specifications and Requirements

The term printed circuit board or PCB is often heard in electronic manufacturing circles. Even if a person is not exposed to these terms, anyone with electronic equipment should know that without a PCB, our modern-day gadgets will not be able to run. PCBs are at the heart of electronic gadgets such as PCs, cellphones, Blu-ray players and television.They are even found in radar and computer systems. PCB is a term that is used for both assembled boards, or for bare boards.

The definition of a typical printed circuit board is it is a self-contained mechanical assembly that electrically and mechanically connects electronic mechanisms.It consists thin fiberglass layers. It is also laminated with etched copper patterns. Some people also refer to it as Printed Wiring Board (PWB).There are several steps involved in the process of manufacturing PCBs. One of the major steps is PCB fabrication.

There are various kinds of PCBs. The differences of these various types become especially evident during the PCB fabrication process. They can be single-sided (with a single copper layer), double-sided (has a pair of copper layers), or multi-layer (more than two inner or outer copper layers). A single-sided board usually has material made from some type of rigid laminate. It usually has a base made from woven glass, with copper of various thicknesses on one side. Since the components are mounted on only one side of the PCB, they are usually placed through holes, then soldered and clipped. Surface Mount Technology is also used, but usually for automated assembly.

Double-sided PCBs also have the same rigid laminate and woven glass material. They have copper of various thicknesses on both sides. Multi-layer boards on the other hand, are also made from similar materials, with copper foil on both top and bottom layers. It also has two or more layers. The number of layers corresponds to the number of copper foils.

Multi-layer PCBs are better because it has a much higher density when it comes to its components. The circuits found within a PCB are formed by a layer of conducting material placed on the surface of a substrate, and then attached to the interconnecting circuits. Some sophisticated PCB Assembly methods even include components such as resistors and capacitors that are embedded in the substrate. An assembled PCB may have circuits that have a singular function or even multiple, complicated functions. A PCB Laminate may be manufactured with more than two layers of copper tracks by using a sandwich construction. The cost of the laminate reflects the number of layers. The extra layers may be used to route more complicated circuitry, and/or distribute the power supply more effectively.

PCBThere are many companies that specialize in manufacturing PCBs. Clients should be guided with general specifications when they submit their work orders. In doing single-layer PCB fabrication, companies usually follow these specifications: first, the maximum size for circuits should be 8 inches by 8 inches and the minimum line width should be six millimeters. Second, each layer has to contain text with a minimum track width of eight millimeters and a minimum height of eighty millimeters. On the other hand, the single-layer drawing of an assembly box prototype should be in dxf file. Also, the position of hole on the drawing should be accurate and at scale. All information needed should be provided in the drawing, such as thickness and material type. For multi-layer PCB fabrication, a three-dimensional drawing is required from the client. The 3D drawing is to represent the entire circuit. The drawing should also indicate the top layer and the bottom layer.

In the year 2012, the world demand for bare PCBs reached at least $60 billion. PCB production sites in Asia account for 90% of PCB production all over the world. China is the leading producer of PCBs, with an estimated 40% of the pie belonging to them. Japan is second, and South Korea is in third place. The United States, on the other hand, is in fifth place.

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How Live Chat Service Can Improve Customer Support

chatCommunication has immensely flourished and improved since the birth of the Internet. People, nowadays, even refer to it when they they are seeking answers to whatever question that comes to mind. Yet, even though the web is loaded with a great deal of information, websites still need the human element in order to deliver reliable and convenient customer service. Live chat service software is a useful program that provides responses to just about any question the customers might have. This application is a superb tool for online shoppers where they simply have to type in their query and get answers in just a matter of seconds.

Live chat support enables real time interaction between the business and the customer. This certainly is a much speedier approach compared to the telephone support system.

Greatly upgrading the online business world, live chat service is equipped to offer assistance regarding several issues and queries. It helps in giving the shoppers specific instructions about what they need to do. Since live chat is available 24/7, it has made it possible to deal with the increasing number of online customers even in the wee hours of the night. Is live chat software really a better option at providing customer support? Here is a thorough examination about how live chat support is a more advantageous approach than the traditional phone support service.

A Comparison


  1. Live chat service is less expensive.

Based on a number of studies, a phone conversation charges approximately $6 to $20. In contrast, live chat interaction only costs as low as $4 on the average. Since the live chat software is equipped with multitasking functionality, it only requires a few reps to be hired, cutting down the cost even more. Research states that making use of live chat application for their customer service helps make a business save 5 to 6 times more compared to utilizing a phone support service.

  1. Live chat enables multitasking.

When working with the live chat application, the efficiency and productivity of the reps become significantly improved. This is due to the fact that live chat reps have the ability to deal with a number of chat interactions at the same time. Phone support representatives, on the other hand, are only able to serve one shopper at a time. What this actually denotes is that live chat service allows handling of exactly the same quantity of customers with just a a lesser number of chat agents. Hence, because of multitasking by helping several shoppers at the same time, live chat support truly embraces the goal of successful business relationship without having to impact the service quality in a negative way.

  1. Live chat facilitates the provision of quicker solution.

It goes without saying that speaking to someone on the phone is truly reassuring, even when it comes to customer service. However, there are instances when the answers seem to be extremely sluggish, particularly when the phone support representative find it difficult to arrive at the real cause of the issue quickly enough. For this reason, live chat service software has been considered as a much simpler and more efficient customer service method as compared to phone support. With live chat support, there are chat reps available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. Their round-the-clock presence allows the shoppers to get in touch with them without difficulty. It basically cuts down on the queue period. The reps can also return to the customers in just a few minutes. Links to relevant web pages can also be supplied to the shoppers instantly. The live chat representative may also guide the customers through the entire online shopping process. That is one thing that the phone support agents are not able to carry out.